Ostrów Tumski

Ostrów Tumski (dziś najstarsza, zabytkowa dzielnica Wrocławia; niem. Dominsel) powstał na obszarze dogodnych przepraw, gdyż Odra między ujściem rzek Oławy na południu, Ślęzy i Widawy na północy – rozgałęziając się na liczne zwężające odnogi – utworzyła tu mniejsze i większe wyspy (ostrowy).

Wykopaliska archeologiczne pozwoliły ustalić, że najwcześniej zamieszkany był w okolicy od kościółka św. Marcina do kościoła św. Krzyża. Pierwszy drewniany kościółek św. Marcina w XI wieku pełnić miał funkcję książęcej kaplicy. Ostrów otoczony był systemem warownych umocnień. W sposób naturalny broniła go Odra, która jednocześnie stanowiła drogę komunikacyjną i dostarczała jego mieszkańcom pożywienia. Ostrów Tumski liczył w tym czasie ok. 1500 mieszkańców.

Stanowiący siedzibę pierwszych Piastów gród na Ostrowie Tumskim założony został prawdopodobnie w X stuleciu. Zbudowana z drewna i otoczona drewniano-ziemnym wałem konstrukcja nie posiadała początkowo elementów murowanych, a pierwszym wzniesionym z trwałego budulca gmachem była kaplica pod wezwaniem św. Marcina. Powstała ona przypuszczalnie na początku XI wieku i należała wówczas do opactwa na Ołbinie. Wschodnia część wyspy już wtedy należała do biskupa wrocławskiego, na początku XI wieku zbudowano pierwszą katedrę, która zastąpiła znajdujący się tam wcześniej niewielki kościół.


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