The Transparency of the Network


Andrzej Leder

“The transparency of things,” something we experience thanks to the existence of the internet, is like the flash of a million halogen bulbs, pointed at our pupils from a million directions at once, with no filter or shade.

"Today, with each of us facing a fear of living in society, caused by growing population density, which causes the universe to shrink and offers none of humanity any refuge from contemptible violence…"
Claude Levi-Strauss

"One can disintegrate the world by means of very strong light. For weak eyes the world becomes solid."
Franz Kafka

Things used to be so beautiful. Theoreticians once mused that someday, every person would be free to determine their own identity, to shape their own image of themselves and the world, and – by drawing upon the endless resources of symbols and signs, available “at the click of a mouse” – to be master and commander of how they defined others, objects, and events, according to their own subjective… what exactly? Their subjective what?

What exactly is this subjectivity that purports to define the project that is the world and the identity of a person? It is, after all, a daunting task to be performed at a mind-boggling scale, a project once deemed appropriate for the likes of God Himself, before His death was announced by Nietzsche.

As it were, modern man himself has been entrusted with this task. What more, it has been decided that culture will better liberate the individual from the shackles of necessity, the more it allows him to be the author and actor of his own world. This is precisely the premise of “participatory culture.”

Intelligence of a higher order?

The concept of “participatory culture” is tied to the dawn of Web 2.0 in the early 21st century, part of a series of staggered developments in the field of communication. Given the computing power of personal electronic equipment such as the ubiquitous cellphone, now comparable to the capabilities of NASA mainframes in the 1960s, as well as the exponential growth in available bandwidth, some have justifiably proposed the concepts of equilateral exchange and the participation of everyone in everything. These developments even substantiate the idea, perhaps most famously formulated by the French thinker Bruno Latour, that what we are witnessing is the emergence of a new type of collective subjectivity, an actor-network, in whose subjectivity we all participate.

That is, of course, if we are online. The digitally excluded do not take part. What this means is that individual nuclei of thought and sparks of insight that cease to operate in the individual human mind and are ejected into this space of transmission that is Web 2.0 constitute some new, independently thinking intelligence of a higher order. A million blogs read by a billion eyes; Wikipedia, written faster than it is read; citizen journalism, where discussion precedes the actual information; one-hit-wonder film productions released on YouTube and its ilk; creative output posted online for the whole world to see; profiles on Facebook and MySpace growing more numerous than the population of the northern hemisphere; commenting, sharing, commenting on sharing, and commenting on comments on sharing; design. No rules apart from availability. Or so it would seem.

The change will come from a different side

Every generation likes to highlight the exceptionalness of the breakthrough they are witnessing or participating in. This quality is typical of contemporary Western civilizations, which feel the need to draw a clear line between their own self and the influence of those who came before them. This is particularly apparent in societies living at the turn of centuries, especially when they coincide with the turn of the millennia.

As the first millennium drew to a close, the world trembled in fear of the impending end of the world. The end of the second millenium brought hope for an end to a world where thought was solely the domain of man.

Following in the wake of similar hopes and fears, the enormous acceleration of internet technology that we have witnessed over the past decade has provoked radical hypotheses concerning changes in the very nature of that which lies at the heart of humanity: the process of thinking. Among these hypotheses is that of the actor-network, proposed by Bruno Latour. According the French sociologist, the processes of thinking are gradually losing their individual nature, and are becoming attributes of a collective subject, one built by the network itself, and one that connects all of its individual users. One might notice, derisively, that the concept harks back to the 19th-century work of Emil Durkheim, who described society as just such an actor-network, one that has become a subject of a higher order. Everyone could take part in this actor-network, but it also defined the individuals that constituted the nodes of its social network. It is not without reason that Latour is considered a French scholar of the social sciences; each of them is considered a successor of Durkheim.

Are we to uphold, based on this observation, the conservative claim that the more things change, the more they stay the same?

While I might personally be inclined to side with such opinions, I do not think that the issue is quite that simple. That would be too easy. I would propose, rather, that much does in fact change, just not in the places and in the manner that would lend credence to optimistic hypotheses such as Pierre Levy’s “collective intelligence” and John Fiske’s “semiotic democracy.”

Permanent conflicts with the network

The claim that much does change, “just not in the places and in the manner” that one would expect, is based on the conviction that it is the individual subject that experiences the world, including the world of the internet and Web 2.0. Currently, that subject is man. A subject that thinks, feels, and is capable of experience; a certain self in relation to all non-self. Such subjects always exist in relation to the Other, in whom the non-self converges, and in relation to whom the subjects orient their activity, communication included. By all means, Latour’s actor-network can be such an Other, but it is an Other in relation to the subject.

What does the modern-day network offer the subject? An exponential increase in cognitive capabilities. Eyesight improved one hundred-fold, reaching thousands of hitherto inaccessible places, recognizing millions of signs that have always lain beyond his grasp. The ear can listen to countless melodies, sounds, and stories. A voice as powerful as that of a cyclops, audible over great distances, beyond the normal range of sound waves. Excess. Overabundance.

The individual subject can only consciously grasp one sign at a time, one meaning, one image. Not five, nor a hundred, nor a thousand.

Of course, the focus can be shifted to another after one second, but it can grasp only one in a given moment. To a certain extent, the next is defined by the previous. That is what thinking is. Hence the defensive, eliminatory role played by our minds, described by many acute thinkers, from Nietzsche to contemporary neurophenomenologists. The mind eliminates excess. But the network produces excess. The individual mind thus remains in permanent conflict with the network. The individual human subject remains in an antagonistic relationship with the medium into which he falls, like a moth drawn towards the flame of a burning candle.

The mind was once sheltered from excess by the dearth of available communication media. To put it metaphorically, this scarcity kept the mind in a state of twilight.

This twilight of the mind, or darkness, as was more commonly the case, was regarded by the Enlightenment as a form of impairment. We now know, however, that twilight and darkness would sometimes stimulate autonomous brain activity by provoking a longing for a distant light (to use yet another metaphor). As we know, great work has been produced by people in a state of isolation.

“The transparency of things,” something we experience thanks to the existence of the internet, is like the flash of a million halogen bulbs, pointed at our pupils from a million directions at once, with no filter or shade. In this transparent environment, the more luminous you are, the more space you take up, and the more others bask in your glow. Everyone has to come up with their own shade.

Creativity or reactivity?

Overabundance forces us to reduce excess ― this is precisely the purpose of the mind’s shielding function. Theories such as the actor-network serve, to a certain extent, as a shielding mechanism. They explain that the question of excess is moot, as it is not the individual person doing the thinking, but rather the collective subject. Any surplus of information or meanings would crush the individual with its sheer volume, but is readily soaked up by the endless mental resources of the collective intelligence.

While these theories shield the mind, they also obscure it by glossing over the issue of what will remain of the individual subject in a world where the thinking is done by a subject of a higher order.

We can be optimistic and decide that nothing bad will happen, and that the status of the individual will be lifted by virtue of their participation in collective thinking. This, however, raises several doubts. While making the mind interactive, excess also makes it reactive: the density of stimuli entering the mind makes it shift from creativity to reactivity. Creativity demands autonomy, in the classic sense of the word: self-determination of its own rules. This involves the ability to stick to one’s own path, regardless of external stimuli, signs, and meanings, and despite the absorbing glow of the network. Otherwise ― to reiterate ― creativity quickly becomes reactivity. A weak subject of collective intelligence reacts chaotically to stimuli that surpass the subject’s capability to shield themselves and to reduce the stimuli. This is easily observed by reading comments to comments on websites and responses to responses to popular videos on YouTube.

The game of participatory culture does not in fact entail the equal participation of everyone in the collective subject, be it the actor-network or a subject by any other name.

Yes, sometimes a video posted by a teenager from Mumbai draws the attention of millions. But this phenomenon sounds rather similar to what Andy Warhol once said: “In the future, everyone will be world-famous for 15 minutes.” Selected as a result of a chaotic series of random events, such videos embody the principle that everyone get their own 15 minutes in the spotlight.

The ruthlessness of the network

Then there are those who have their hours, weeks, and years in the spotlight. Their prospects are in fact determined by how well they exploit different excess-regulation mechanisms, how well they shield their presence from the glow of the presence of others. One of the more effective methods is to repeat one’s presence in many locations on the network, reinforcing the contrast between those whose “appearance” we constantly observe and those to whose existence we remain oblivious. This applies especially to the combination of images on the internet and TV, and voices emitted by the radio and cellphones. The practice of ”search engine optimization” serves precisely the same purpose.

Those adept at manipulating search engine results will become constant participants in participatory culture. What more: such people will dictate its terms.

Those whose gaze is dominated by the chaotic glow of the network, subjects enslaved by the appearance of others, will always be subjugated. They will, at most, be able to vent their frustration wherever the admins permit commenting.

In this context, the actions of the network can be compared to the actions of the market. The existence of local markets, cut off from other markets, guaranteed interest in products made by local manufacturers. Peasants would gather at the local town to buy sickles painstakingly made by a local blacksmith. The linking of local markets through safe communication routes swept away the minor manufacturers and secured the position of mass producers, eliminating the competition. From then on, sickles were made in factories, and the blacksmith as an actual trade disappeared from the Western world.

If the culture of the network is the highest form of existence for the “society of the spectacle,” as Guy Debord described our society half a century ago, then it is this culture that is referred to in the claim that the present is marked by “a generalized sliding of having into appearing.”

This transition from “having into appearing” is the reason that ”appearing” is not equally distributed.

Again, a commentary by Debord seems most appropriate: “The oldest social specialization, the specialization of power, is at the root of the spectacle.” When the existence of the individual ― and this always entails existence in relation to the Other ― is focused on a virtual world, it becomes even more dependent on the individual’s resources, material or symbolic. The ability to “appear” is subject to a hierarchy. The internet is the perfect medium for this ruthless hierarchy, and the queen of Facebook, Lady Gaga, just happens to be from New York, and not Mumbai.

I would conclude that “participatory culture” is, in its essence, closer to Guy Debord’s society of the spectacle than to Pierre Levy’s collective intelligence. In order to exist, each of us ― individual subjects ― must submit to strict rules. And try even harder. There’s no business like show business.

Translated by Arthur Barys

listen to the content print version

TAGS: Friedrich Nietzsche, participatory culture, Bruno Latour, an actor-network theory, Émile Durkheim, John Fiske, Guy Debord, Pierre Lévy, Andy Warhol, Lady Gaga, Web 2.0, Facebook, YouTube, MySpace

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