Culture between people of the arts and administrators


Zygmunt Bauman

There are therefore plenty of reasons why there should be no love lost between people of the arts and administrators...

Theodor Adorno[1] notes that embodying the objective spirit of an epoch in a single concept of “culture”, instantly betrays an administrative view-point, from whose superior perspective, the task is that of collating, distributing, valuing and organizing” - and he goes on to list the characteristic of that viewpoint:

Demands placed upon culture by administration are by their nature heteronomous: regardless of what form culture takes on, it must be judged according to norms not of its own, and having nothing to do with the value of the object, and everything to do with with some kind of abstract standards imposed upon in from outside.

But as can be expected from such an asymmetrical social relationship, an altogether different sight must greet the eyes of those who experience this state of affairs from the opposite end - from the side of the managed, not the managers; and an altogether different conclusion would be drawn if the observers from the other end were to be permitted to form and pass judgements. We could then expect a panorama of unfounded and unwanted repression, and a verdict of injustice and lawlessness. From that other perspective, culture appears in opposition to management, and that because, as Oscar Wilde put it ( provocatively, according to Adorno) , culture is “useless”, or at least seen as such, as long as the (self appointed, and from the point of view of art, illegal) supervisors, hold the monopoly for laying down boundary-lines between usefulness and uselessness. In this sense, according to Adorno, “culture” represents the interests and demands of the particular, as against the homogenizing pressures of the”general” - and takes on an uncompromisingly critical stance towards the existing state of affairs, and its institutions”.

Fine martial arts

Collision, constantly simmering antagonism, occasional open conflict between two perspectives and narratives deriving from different experiences, are impossible to avoid. It is impossible to prevent those conflicts from emerging, nor is it possible to stem the antagonism once it happens. The relationship between the management and the managed is antagonistic by nature: the two sides aspire to opposite outcomes and can only exist in a state of potential collision, in an atmosphere of mutual distrust, and under pressure from ever growing temptation to pick up a fight.

The conflict is especially glaring, clashes particularly bitter, and relations singularly fraught with catastrophic consequences, in the case of the fine arts - the foremost area of culture and the powerhouse of its dynamic....[2]

the fine arts are the most hyped up area of culture; for that reason they cannot resist undertaking ever new forays into new territory the taking up of guerilla warfare, through which to forge, pave and plot ever new pathways to be followed by the rest of human culture ( “art is not a better, but an alternative way of being” - noted Josif Brodski[3] “ it is not an attempt to escape from reality, but the opposite: an attempt to breathe life into it”). Creators of art are by their very nature adversaries or competitors in activities, which managers would after all prefer to make into their own prerogatives.

The more they distance themselves from the existing order and the more staunchly they refuse giving in to it, the less suited are the arts and artists to the tasks placed before them by the administration; this in turn must mean, de facto or in spe, that their managers must regard them as useless, if not downright harmful to the enterprise. Managers and artists present one another with opposite aims: the spirit of management remains in a state of constant warfare with the casualness, which is the natural territory/ecoptype of art. But as we noted a moment ago, in their preoccupation with sketching-in imaginary alternatives to the state of things, the arts, whether they like it or not, rival the management whose control over human enterprise and effort expended in manipulating the likelihood of it taking place, come down in the last count, to its desire to dominate the future. There are therefore plenty of reasons why there should be no love lost between people of the arts and administrators...

Marriage of convenience

Speaking of culture, but bearing in mind predominantly the fine arts, Adorno acknowledges the inevitability of conflict between it and the administration. But he also claims that antagonists need one another; that, what is more, art needs champions, wealthy ones at that, since without their help, its vocation cannot be fulfilled. A situation not unlike that in many marriages where spouses are unable to live together in harmony, yet they cannot live apart either ... however uncomfortable, unpleasant, unbearable a life full of open clashes and argument may be, a life poisoned daily by a hidden mutual hostility, there is no greater misfortune that could befall culture (or more precisely the fine arts), than its complete and unconditional triumph over its opponent:

“Culture suffers when it is planned and managed; yet when left to its own devices, everything cultural can become ineffectual, its very existence becomes questionable.”

On expressing this view Adorno once again draws the doleful conclusion he reached with Max Horkheimer while working on “Dialectics of Enlightenment”: that history of old religions, as well as the experience of modern parties and revolutions, teach us that the price of survival is “transformation of the idea into currency”. This history lesson needs to be assiduously studied, says Adorno, in order to assimilate it and impress it upon the practices of professional artists, who carry the main burden of the ‘transgressive’ function of culture, and consciously accept responsibility for it, thereby making criticism and transgression into a way of life:

Appeals of creators of culture for the withdrawal from administrative procedures and for keeping a distance from them , sound hollow. If they were to listen to these claims, they would not only deprive themselves of their livelihood, but they would also lose all influence upon society and all contact with it - everything that culture cannot do without; this is something that even the most principled of arts dare not do.

What can one say: this is indeed a paradox and one of the hardest to solve at that .... managers must defend the order entrusted into their care as the “order of things”, that is to say the very system which artists loyal to their vocation, must tax, thereby exposing the perversity of its logic and questioning its wisdom. As Adorno suggests, administration’s innate suspiciousness towards the natural insubordination and unpredictability of art cannot but be a constant cassus belli for artists; on the other hand, as he does not fail to add, creators of culture cannot make do without administration, if, loyal to their vocation, and wishing to change the world ( for the better if at all possible) they want to be heard and seen, and as far as is possible, heard out and noticed. Creators of culture have no choice, says Adorno: they must live with this paradox on a daily basis.

However loudly they may curse the contentions and interventions of the administration, the alternative to modus coviviendi is loss of meaning in society and immersion into non-being.
Creators may choose between more or less bearable forms and styles of management - but they have no choice between the acceptance and rejection of the institution of management as such. In any case, having the right to such a choice is an unrealistic dream.

Sibling rivalry

The paradox discussed here cannot be solved because, despite of all of the conflicts between them and tacit or noisy mud-slinging , cultural creators and officials co-habit the same household and participate in the same enterprise. Their disputes are a manifestation of what psychologists would describe as “sibling rivalry”.

Both one and the other are governed by the same understanding of their role and its purpose in a shared world, which is to make that world different from what it would continue to be, or become without their intervention, and input into its condition and functioning.

Both of them harbour a (not unfounded) doubt as to the ability of the existing, or desired order to sustain itself, or to come to be by its own powers and without their help. They do not disagree that the world needs constantly vigilant monitoring and frequent adjustment; the disagreement concerns the subject of adjustments and the direction the corrections should take. In the last count, the only stake in the argument and constant power struggle is the right to make decisions in the matter, and make one’s point stand, or decision binding.

Useless beauty

Hannah Arendt went a step further and looked beyond the direct stake in the conflict, reaching so to speak, to the existential roots of discord:

“things are subject of culture as long as they last; their permanence remains in opposition to their functionality - an aspect which would make it transient and cause it to disappear from the world of phenomena, by exhausting them , using them up or wearing them out...

Culture finds itself under threat, when all objects, created now or in the past, are treated solely through the prism of functions played in vital social processes - as though they had no other right to exist beyond the satisfaction of some need, and this regardless of how noble or how base that need may be”.[4]

According to Arendt, culture reaches beyond and above current realities. It is not concerned with what at a given point might be in the order of the day and might be hailed as “ the imperative of the moment”; at least it strives not to be bound by limits defined by “actuality” of the matter, whoever may declare it as such and by whatever means they may do so, and to free itself from the constraints imposed by it.

To be utilized/consumed on the spot, moreover to be damaged in the course of use/consumption, is not, according to Arendt, the destiny of cultural products, nor is it the measure of their worth.

Arendt claims that the point of culture (i.e. art) is beauty - I think she chooses to define the interests of culture in this way because the idea of beauty is a synonym, or an embodiment of an ideal which resolutely and stubbornly eludes rational justification or causal explanation; beauty is by its nature devoid of purpose or obvious use, it serves nothing but itself - nor can it justify its existence by invoking a recognized, palpable and documented need which impatiently and noisily demands to be satisfied.

Whatever needs art might eventually satisfy, they must first be conjured up and brought to life by the act of artistic creation. A thing is “a cultural object” if it lasts longer than whatever practical use might accompany or inspire its creation.

Changes are coming

Cultural creators may rebel today as they did in the past, against a meddling and intrusive intervention which insists on assessing cultural objects according to criteria of other creations, alien and ill-disposed to the natural non-functionality, unruly spontaneity and intractable independence of creation; they may rebel against bosses, both appointed and self appointed, who exploit, just as they did in the past, the powers and means at their disposal, to demand compliance to rules and standards of usefulness drawn up and defined by themselves; who, summa summarium , just as in the past, undercut the wings of artistic imagination and undermine the principles of artistic creation. And yet something has changed in the last few decades in the situation of art and of its creators: first, the nature of managers-administrators currently in charge of art or aspiring to the position; secondly, the means which they use to achieve it; third, the sense given by the new breed of managers to the notion of “functionality” and “usefulness” which they expect of art and with which they tempt it and/or demand from it.

Translated by Lydia Bauman

This article is a part of the Zygmunt Bauman's book “Culture in Modern Liquid Times”. Sub-headings were created by the editors of the website

  1. 1. Theodor W. Adorno "Culture and Administration", in: JM Bernstein “The Culture Industry: Selected Essays on Mass Culture by Theodor W. Adorno”, Routledge, 1991, p.93.
  2. 2. Ibid, pp.93, 98, 100.
  3. 3. Joseph Brodsky "The Child of Civilization," in “Less Than One: Selected Essays”, Farrar Strauss Giroux 1987, p.123.
  4. 4. Hannah Arendt “La crise de la culture”, Gallimard, 1968, pp.266-7.
listen to the content print version

TAGS: Theodor Adorno, Max Horkheimer, Dialectics of Enlightenment, Hannah Arendt, Josif Brodski

  1. whhjBOFNwkzfPSjSf2011-09-16 09:00:30

    Wow, your post makes mine look felebe. More power to you!

  2. jlJYkgKedza2011-09-16 13:22:24

    I'm out of luegae here. Too much brain power on display!

  3. LsdguYUKeKIbl2011-10-10 01:37:56

    If I were a Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtle, now I'd say “Kowaubgna, dude!”

  4. LLFkSCUD2011-12-25 13:51:15

    Hey hey hey, take a gdaenr at what' you've done

  5. oem software2012-02-12 06:42:09

    k50C3n Stupid article..!

  6. Bob Henderson2012-02-28 21:14:07

    Hah, Italy demonstrators rally against Berlusconi

  7. Sofia Wise2012-02-29 12:19:10

    Poor news - Syria's 'mutilation mystery' increases...

  8. 2012-07-27 16:06:45

  9. 2012-10-12 05:00:20

  10. eKRqmVnNB2012-11-13 16:32:42

    You know what, I'm very much incnlied to agree.

  11. 2012-11-13 16:32:45

  12. 2012-11-14 02:49:19

  13. 2012-11-16 01:21:39

  14. 2012-11-16 15:54:44

  15. 2013-02-23 18:33:27

  16. social bookmarking service2013-03-02 14:59:33

    gnC12B Really appreciate you sharing this article.Thanks Again. Will read on...

  17. 2013-03-02 14:59:36

  18. viagra discount2013-03-02 22:23:16

    Im obliged for the article.Really thank you! Fantastic.

  19. buy discount viagra2013-03-02 22:23:18

    Appreciate you sharing, great blog post.Thanks Again. Want more.

  20. Samsung 4072 4pack2013-03-03 00:28:37

    I really like and appreciate your blog article.Much thanks again. Keep writing.

  21. samsung k40722013-03-03 01:16:30

    I loved your article post.Really thank you! Will read on...

  22. click here2013-03-03 02:00:21

    m6VVFg I truly appreciate this post.Really looking forward to read more. Much obliged.

  23. 2013-03-03 02:00:23

  24. buy discount viagra2013-03-03 04:21:21

    2J5FvX Say, you got a nice blog.Much thanks again. Really Great.

  25. 2013-03-03 04:21:24

  26. samsung P4072b double pack2013-03-03 08:40:27

    I truly appreciate this article.Thanks Again. Really Great.

  27. samsung c40722013-03-03 09:31:37

    Thank you ever so for you article.Really looking forward to read more. Really Cool.

  28. samsung y40722013-03-03 10:23:06

    I really liked your article post.Much thanks again. Keep writing.

  29. samsung m40722013-03-03 11:24:13

    Fantastic post.Really looking forward to read more. Fantastic.

  30. Cheap photo paper2013-03-03 12:13:44

    Thanks for sharing, this is a fantastic blog.Thanks Again. Really Cool.

  31. A4 photo paper2013-03-03 13:04:31

    A round of applause for your blog article. Cool.

  32. Cheap a4 photo paper2013-03-03 13:57:43

    Really enjoyed this blog post. Cool.

  33. Inkjet photo paper2013-03-03 14:52:16

    wow, awesome blog article.Really looking forward to read more. Want more.

  34. bookmaring service2013-03-13 16:22:43

    XRJR2j Say, you got a nice blog post.Much thanks again. Great.

  35. 2013-03-13 16:22:45

  36. bookmaring service2013-03-13 19:55:25

    WewBEa I really like and appreciate your post.Really looking forward to read more. Really Great.

  37. 2013-03-13 19:55:27

  38. bookmaring service2013-03-15 15:22:48

    sWRnUO Major thankies for the blog post. Will read on...

  39. 2013-03-15 15:22:50

  40. buy cipro2013-03-15 17:42:11

    Im thankful for the article.Really looking forward to read more. Awesome.

  41. ciprofloxacin hcl2013-03-15 19:06:30

    Looking forward to reading more. Great article. Awesome.

  42. generic viagra online2013-03-15 19:20:40

    Hey, thanks for the article.Really looking forward to read more. Awesome.

  43. generic viagra online2013-03-15 20:45:18

    Looking forward to reading more. Great article post.Thanks Again. Really Cool.

  44. generic cialis online2013-03-15 20:59:32

    Great article post.Much thanks again. Want more.

  45. generic cialis online2013-03-15 22:24:48

    I really like and appreciate your post.Really thank you! Keep writing.

  46. 20mg levitra2013-03-15 22:39:08

    Fantastic blog post.Really thank you! Will read on...

  47. Buy Levitra2013-03-16 00:05:15

    I appreciate you sharing this article post.Really looking forward to read more. Fantastic.

  48. 2013-03-29 10:38:37

  49. digital slr lenses2013-05-14 00:38:32

    rnV6dM Say, you got a nice blog post.Much thanks again.

  50. 2013-05-14 00:38:34

  51. digital slr lenses2013-05-14 05:52:52

    qo51H7 Thanks for the article.Thanks Again. Really Cool.

  52. 2013-05-14 05:52:54

  53. 2013-05-18 19:08:13

  54. good seo2013-05-25 14:44:24

    Mmd6yW Thanks so much for the article.Thanks Again. Cool.

  55. 2013-05-25 14:44:27

  56. good seo2013-05-25 17:33:37

    O9v6YN This is one awesome article.Much thanks again. Really Cool.

  57. 2013-05-25 17:33:42

  58. seo service2013-05-27 16:04:12

    5bLE8M Really enjoyed this article. Awesome.

  59. 2013-05-27 16:04:14

  60. seo service2013-05-28 03:17:00

    XnQBVo Thanks so much for the article post.Really thank you! Will read on...

  61. 2013-05-28 03:17:02

  62. cheap social bookmarks2013-06-19 21:07:06

    mwQPdk Say, you got a nice article.Thanks Again.

  63. 2013-06-19 21:07:11

  64. 2013-06-22 01:17:44

  65. 2013-06-28 04:47:11

  66. news and many more2013-07-04 16:32:26

    IL6KGY I really enjoy the article.Thanks Again. Really Cool.

  67. 2013-07-04 16:32:29

  68. 2013-07-20 10:55:21

  69. qkVcHpfyz2013-07-24 06:42:21

    Appreciate you sharing, great article post.Really thank you! Really Great.

  70. WFYAKNfCizkL2013-07-25 08:38:27

    Im grateful for the blog.Thanks Again. Keep writing.

  71. news2013-07-26 11:16:37

    1BMCwJ Enjoyed every bit of your post.Really looking forward to read more. Much obliged.

  72. 2013-07-26 11:16:40

  73. greatest news2013-08-02 16:42:41

    I really liked your blog post.Really thank you! Much obliged.

  74. greatest news2013-08-02 21:20:27

    OdBacm Thanks again for the article post.Thanks Again. Want more.

  75. 2013-08-02 21:20:29

  76. awesome links for you2013-08-19 14:17:41

    Pn6zWs Enjoyed every bit of your post.Thanks Again. Fantastic.

  77. 2013-08-19 14:17:45

  78. awesome links for you2013-08-20 00:58:56

    Bsp0OV Very good article.Really thank you! Really Cool.

  79. 2013-08-20 00:58:59

  80. best link building2013-09-04 06:08:20

    pfxW06 Looking forward to reading more. Great article post.Thanks Again. Great.

  81. 2013-09-04 06:08:23

  82. link building2013-09-07 01:53:15

    PcRAqm I truly appreciate this blog article.Much thanks again. Awesome.

  83. 2013-09-07 01:53:17

  84. the best seo service2013-09-08 02:43:05

    Yy4TIn Thanks for sharing, this is a fantastic blog.Thanks Again. Great.

  85. 2013-09-08 02:43:07

  86. make money online2013-09-11 22:49:54

    QSY5jr Very good blog.Really thank you! Awesome.

  87. 2013-09-11 22:49:56

  88. only for 5 dollars2013-09-13 04:40:45

    GEelsa Hey, thanks for the blog post.Much thanks again. Really Cool.

  89. 2013-09-13 04:40:47

  90. make money online2013-09-13 09:31:06

    BLyOMz Really appreciate you sharing this article post. Want more.

  91. 2013-09-13 09:31:09

  92. cheap link building2013-09-24 18:16:45

    BSwber Hey, thanks for the article post.Thanks Again. Fantastic.

  93. 2013-09-24 18:16:48

  94. best link build2013-10-15 20:06:19

    vM9BeV Great, thanks for sharing this blog article. Really Cool.

  95. 2013-10-15 20:06:21

  96. best link build2013-10-16 08:54:51

    jnHzxW This is one awesome post. Keep writing.

  97. 2013-10-16 08:54:53

  98. link building2013-10-23 20:09:17

    XMQY6o Hey, thanks for the blog post.Really thank you! Keep writing.

  99. 2013-10-23 20:09:19

  100. smashing top seo2013-10-23 23:21:13

    8H0Bjo I loved your blog. Fantastic.

  101. 2013-10-23 23:21:15

  102. take a look at it!2013-10-25 17:38:01

    Ty9WHj I cannot thank you enough for the post.Really thank you! Really Cool.

  103. 2013-10-25 17:38:03

  104. smashing top seo2013-10-26 20:22:05

    eVjAXE This is one awesome blog.Much thanks again. Fantastic.

  105. 2013-10-26 20:22:07

  106. take a look at it!2013-11-01 20:59:01

    kvxCCT I really enjoy the blog article. Keep writing.

  107. 2013-11-01 20:59:04

  108. awesome stuff here2013-11-18 06:50:17

    VYuqfl This is one awesome blog.

  109. 2013-11-18 06:50:20

  110. click here2013-11-19 03:47:56

    qh63Ht wow, awesome blog post.Really thank you! Really Great.

  111. 2013-11-19 03:48:01

  112. check this out2013-12-14 20:08:25

    98l8LM Thanks a lot for the article post.Thanks Again. Much obliged.

  113. 2013-12-14 20:08:31

  114. stunning seo guys2014-01-08 10:22:54

    fvRwtn Thanks-a-mundo for the article.Thanks Again. Want more.

  115. 2014-01-08 10:22:56

  116. 2014-01-15 11:54:00

  117. look at this2014-01-16 01:04:54

    CKakOV Thanks for sharing, this is a fantastic post.Really thank you! Awesome.

  118. 2014-01-16 01:04:59

  119. awesome things!2014-02-28 13:00:55

    IgMVGB Really enjoyed this article post.Thanks Again. Keep writing.

  120. 2014-02-28 13:00:59

  121. 2014-03-10 12:29:24

  122. 2014-03-10 16:18:21

  123. seo for cheap2014-03-22 19:14:54

    4e3nDs Great, thanks for sharing this blog.Really looking forward to read more. Will read on...

  124. 2014-03-22 19:14:56

  125. best prices2014-03-22 20:43:30

    gSmBAw I value the blog post.Really thank you! Keep writing.

  126. 2014-03-22 20:43:32

  127. best prices2014-04-01 10:51:18

    VZGjQv I appreciate you sharing this blog article. Really Cool.

  128. 2014-04-01 10:51:21

  129. check it out2014-04-01 14:14:26

    gxz8m7 Really informative article post.Much thanks again.

  130. 2014-04-01 14:14:28

  131. 2014-04-10 10:12:36

  132. check it out2014-04-18 05:05:41

    FZnY1l I value the article post.Much thanks again. Really Cool.

  133. 2014-04-18 05:05:44

  134. best prices2014-05-12 05:20:42

    UKnzMk I cannot thank you enough for the post.Really thank you! Really Great.

  135. 2014-05-12 05:20:44

  136. seo company2014-06-04 20:42:00

    QyQXoO Say, you got a nice article. Really Great.

  137. 2014-06-04 20:42:02

  138. awesome seo2014-06-17 21:41:00

    Q2Bktp Thank you for your blog article.Much thanks again. Much obliged.

  139. 2014-06-17 21:41:02

  140. awesome seo2014-06-18 14:55:16

    9GxTbD Awesome post.Much thanks again. Keep writing.

  141. 2014-06-18 14:55:26

  142. 2014-06-23 12:45:30

  143. good backlinks2014-07-04 07:44:27

    gpQw9l I cannot thank you enough for the blog post.Thanks Again.

  144. 2014-07-04 07:44:29

  145. 2014-07-21 17:56:12

  146. crorkz linkz2014-08-01 12:44:34

    QMjH2i Wow, great article post.Really looking forward to read more. Much obliged.

  147. 2014-08-01 12:44:36

  148. matzcrorkz2014-08-03 21:48:30

    s1Iqda A round of applause for your article post.Thanks Again.

  149. 2014-08-03 21:48:32

  150. crorkz matz2014-08-04 23:25:15

    ix4J8r A round of applause for your post.Really thank you!

  151. 2014-08-04 23:25:17

  152. crorkz2014-08-04 23:46:47

    nodxGZ I am so grateful for your article.Much thanks again. Keep writing.

  153. 2014-08-04 23:46:49

  154. 2014-08-25 21:24:32

  155. 2014-10-06 07:37:15

  156. 2014-10-06 07:44:03

  157. 2014-10-15 08:54:44

  158. 2014-10-16 03:10:38

  159. 2014-10-18 14:21:29

  160. matz crorkz2014-11-23 17:05:20

    qAOeIt Hi there, I discovered your website by way of Google whilst searching for a related subject, your web site came up, it appears great. I have bookmarked it in my google bookmarks.

  161. 2014-11-23 17:05:22

  162. crorkz2015-01-16 02:24:37

    X01JuJ Thanks for the good writeup. It in truth was once a entertainment account it. Glance advanced to far delivered agreeable from you! By the way, how could we keep in touch?

  163. 2015-01-16 02:24:40

  164. 2015-02-25 04:46:27

  165. 2015-06-24 17:11:03

  166. 2015-07-14 01:07:29

  167. 2015-07-18 06:42:42

  168. 2015-07-27 23:56:04

  169. 2015-08-03 04:19:01

  170. 2015-08-09 06:23:33

  171. 2015-10-25 16:39:59

  172. 2016-02-06 09:35:56

  173. 2016-04-25 10:33:00

  174. 2016-05-30 21:33:05

  175. 2016-06-09 09:49:18

  176. 2016-06-13 23:53:07

  177. 2016-06-18 22:36:03

  178. 2016-06-23 12:00:15

  179. 2016-07-12 13:25:24

  180. 2016-07-21 19:18:46

  181. 2016-07-28 02:23:43

  182. 2016-08-13 01:49:23

  183. 2016-09-12 23:42:45

  184. 2016-10-12 04:47:22

  185. 2016-11-10 02:01:12

  186. 2016-12-06 03:47:44

  187. 2016-12-27 06:48:09

  188. 2016-12-31 17:56:53

  189. 2017-01-16 01:34:03

  190. 2017-02-04 03:15:47

  191. 2017-02-23 06:13:57

  192. 2017-05-18 03:52:39

  193. 2018-02-20 16:45:28

  194. help me2018-05-30 23:38:14

    gT1Odn Thanks for the article.Really looking forward to read more.

  195. 2018-05-30 23:38:16

  196. 2018-11-28 06:43:05

  197. 2018-12-01 04:29:21

  198. see pron 2018-12-21 03:39:56

    BDFHV7 paul smith ?? Listed Here Is A Solution That as Even Assisting bag-masters Grow

  199. 2018-12-21 03:39:58

  200. chocopie2018-12-21 05:49:50

    2fkbYe This very blog is without a doubt awesome and besides diverting. I have picked helluva helpful advices out of it. I ad love to return every once in a while. Cheers!

  201. 2018-12-21 05:49:52

  202. 2018-12-25 19:07:34

  203. 2019-04-01 04:43:34

  204. i love pron2019-04-15 23:14:38

    N3thml one of our visitors recently recommended the following website

  205. 2019-04-15 23:14:40

  206. best pron2019-04-19 14:27:41

    l0HV0X Keep up the superb piece of work, I read few articles on this web site and I think that your web blog is very interesting and has got sets of great info.

  207. 2019-04-19 14:27:43

  208. suba me2019-04-22 14:44:31

    VPxTRx You are able to find visibly a pack to understand about this unique. I truly suppose you created specific excellent components in functions also.

  209. 2019-04-22 14:44:33