free zone / NGO zone

Strategic Approach in NGO Capacity Building and Professional Development


Milena Dragićević Šešić

The independent cultural organizations in civil sector might be so diversified - depending on cultural context, historical development and tradition, but also influenced by contemporary political and legal framework, economic and technological capacities etc. – that science of management should develop more precise and more differentiated instruments for both strategic analysis and strategic development.

Management as practice and science has devoted a great attention to organizational development for institutions and enterprises in private and public sector. Strategic management, entrepreneurial approach, business planning and general management, had been at the heart of the discussions and trainings for private sector organizations in countries in transition. On the other side different form of trainings for capacity building had been established to improve the management of public institutions, focusing on administration management, but also, introducing strategic thinking logic in the world of yearly (routine) planning and reporting.

In the same time, civil society organizations usually are put in the category private non-profit, which is mostly American classification category, not always adequate in European circumstances, where systems are very diversified and complex in both private non-profit organizations (such as galleries, publishing companies) but also among civil society organizations which are linking social movements with arts.

In this text we will analyze the needs of organizational development for civil society structures – such as artistic collectives, NGOs, networks or socio-cultural movements. The private non-profit cultural organizations, created by one individual will not be treated in this text, as they are based on different ethics and often have different ambitions, like prestige in international cultural circles, gathering social respect, or image transfer etc. (which is then reflected in their organizational development needs).

Here we will present just summary categorization of civil society organizations that represent important part in cultural life of every European country. However, specific national traditions are fostering special organizational formats like “chitalishte” in Bulgaria, “Zadruga” in Serbia, or public-civil partnership organizations, like it was the case with Maison de la culture in France in sixties. One interesting model is “cooperatively owned association”, which is the case of Intercult, Stockholm (, accessed 9 Dec. 2010).

Typology of civil society organizations:

A) Professional associations (association of artists, museum workers, librarians, etc.) and association of institutions (Association of private museums, European Museum Forum, etc.).

B) NGOs – activist organizationsgathering around important social and cultural issues, like Europa Nostra and its national Polish members: Dobro Kultury (, Patria Polonorum (, Society of Friends of History and Monuments of Krakow (, Towarzystwo Przyjaciół Warszawy – Society of Friends of Warsaw (

There are also subgroups within this group
B1) advocacy organizations / Omnibus for Direct Democracy, Germany
B2) lobby organizations / Culture Action Europe, Brussels
B3) ground project implementing organizations, contributing to cultural policy and cultural scene, like Le Troisieme Bureau [1] who is promoting new drama texts from different cultures within French theater world, etc.

C) Art and cultural organizations – Associations and Groups of artists functioning as art troupes or art "institutions", like Cricot, Krakow; Art Association Fičo balet, Ljubljana or Melkweg (Amsterdam, The Netherlands); Łaźnia Nowa (Cracow, Poland).

D) Charity organizations (funds and foundations), like European Cultural Foundation, Stefan Batory Foundation, etc. They can be grant-giving or grant-seeking foundations, like Nordoff Robbins Music Therapy center [2]

E) Amateur and Hobby organizations – the interest organizations gathering around one issue or activity, such as folklore, choral singing, etc. (Company Batook, Grenoble.

F) Networks of independent organizations (national and international) – Clubture [3], Trans Europe Halles [4], IETM [5], etc.

This diversified space of independent cultural organizations demands diversified strategies of development which should be designed in accordance to a new vision, a mission and strategic aims of a cultural organization. Civil society organizations also have to have sound management, to be efficient and effective, and to contribute substantially to the development of art and culture, but especially to the development of vibrant cultural life. So, fostering strategic approach within civil sector is needed that all three sectors could achieve to be equally important, for the benefit of arts and culture, and quality of life of the whole community.  

In the following text we will analyze the most used strategies, explaining shortly the others, as they also might be useful in the development of intersectorial approach through partnerships and other forms of linkages.

It has to be underlined that in developing capacities of NGOs, numerous trainings had been organized in Europe, especially in new democracies. In those trainings mostly techniques from private sector had been applied, as the logic of research put them within private sphere. In this sense, the Independent cultural organization is just differing from Music Company by its orientation toward non-profit aims, but still it was forced to think about “business plan” in spite of the fact that its value base and orientation toward community demands different strategies and other type of developmental thinking. Here we will present the possible strategies, offering case studies which would show the extent of the use of both contextual, environmental opportunities as well as policy instruments from different levels of governance.

Independent cultural organizations – strategies of development

It is important, on both individual and organizational level to develop strategic thinking, to be able to find adequate strategies for long term goals, for desired outcomes and visions. Established learning systems (family education and schools) have not been favorable to this kind approach, fostering mostly “sure” paths and conventional ways of both learning and doing. But contemporary world is offering much more chances, but also, more risks. Institutional logic of thinking is not possible any more, and each person and each organization have to be in constant self-questioning of its role – mission, vision and aims. And to be able to fulfill its own expectations, have to develop abilities for strategic thinking and doing. In cultural sector we can speak about strategies of organizational development, but also about strategies of program development and positioning. However, the greater need is to discuss and train for strategic thinking in organizational development, as that is a new skill far away from professional skills acquired by artists and cultural workers, while strategies of program development [6] like scheduling strategies etc. are already part of the professional curatorial competence of majority of cultural workers.

The most frequently used strategies of organizational development [7]in the domain of independent culture refer to the following types of structural and programming changes:

a) programming and organizational “competitive” strategies,
b) qualityachievement strategies,
c) linkagestrategies,
d) publicengagement strategies,
e) strategiesfor the achievement of sustainability.

However, there is no such thing as “pure” or “model” strategy. This list of strategies and their descriptions and analysis which will be later presented cannot be taken as “role-models”, but only as stimulants for further thinking and research. In every organization each strategy has to be conceptualized to contribute to their specific vision and mission, and therefore, it has to have different elements and sometimes even different logic. Also, even if we would have two similar organizations in two cities, wanting to have absolutely same vision and mission, as the strategy has to be applied using its own organizational strength and resources, as well as opportunities from (local) environment – it would not be possible to imagine two SAME strategies.

Still, a lot can be learned from different examples. The inspiration for strategic decisions or instruction for methodical systematicity, as well as different ways and approaches in creating clusters of strategies. Case studies will focus on examples coming from civil sector, as those organizations being the most fragile have to be the most innovative and creative in funding opportunities for development (and even survival), as the survival of public institutions is rarely under question, and private sector might have “luxury” to change its mission and main “programs” in order to fit market needs. Independent organizations are created exactly in the domains where those needs are rare, non-existent (like contemporary dance in the Balkans), or not publicly recognized as important minority needs (of people with special needs, for example).

In the following analysis we will explore the most suitable and the most used strategies, explaining on the base of case studies of different organizations in Europe, what might be the reasons for their implementation and summary of outcomes and achieved results.

A) Programming and organizational “competitive” strategies, are the most used strategies both implicitly and explicitly. Competitive here is used in a sense of positioning, as competitiveness in cultural management has different meaning than in business management. Cultural organisations do not intend to destroy competition, they just want to be different or better, more artistically successful, etc. But to be able to create and continue working, cultural organizations need a “scene”, an environment from where they can draw new resources, new artistic talents and audiences.

1. Diversification of programs is a strategy often applied by pure chance (copying what we have seen in another city, in another organization, being invited to join some project, coming of new persons in organization) – or, it raises from funding possibilities – announced competitions and tenders for specific programs and projects. Public cultural policies today are often announcing long in advance their priorities, so that organization in civil sector might create projects accordingly.

For example, every year in European Union and Council of Europe is a year devoted to one issue or problem: intercultural dialogue, mobility, volunteering. In the same time, in the countries of European Union, often presidency is linked to certain priority, in Sweden to children culture, or in case of Belgium, to fight against poverty and for inclusion. That is the reason that cultural organizations are stimulated to develop programs in those areas, to match the issues and interest of public bodies.

It is extremely visible in the case of European networks (as independent international organizations for which membership fees are often the only secure income) who usually organize their seminars and workshops around actual topics. ENCATC, European Network of Cultural Administration Training Centers [8], not only that usually chooses the theme of Annual Conference according to the main European Agenda[9] , but also, since beginning when it had mostly information and communication function,  applied a strategy of program diversification creatingfive complementary strands: Developing policy, Building capacity, Sharing knowledge, Stimulating research, Promoting mobility and Communicating [10]. That enabled both development and strengthening the capacity of ENCATC, who besides regular exchange of information about curricula and exchange of students and professors, now is organizing also: training for trainers and for students of ENCATC member organizations, coordinates seven Thematic Forums and Policy Groupings (Creative Entrepreneurship & Education in Cultural Life; Interpretation/Mediation applied to Heritage Sites; Monitors of Culture policy grouping; Museums and Municipalities policy grouping; Europe International; Urban Management and cultural policy of city and Arts and Health). Also, ENCATC contributes now to the research development by supporting capacity-building in cultural policy research through the Cultural Policy Research Award – a joint initiative of the European Cultural Foundation and the Riksbankens Jublileumsfond and The Young Cultural Policy Researchers Forum – with the support of the European Cultural Foundation, and each year another member organization.

All those projects, workshops, seminars came as a result of newly established goals, linked to the new needs (like support member universities in introducing research component within teaching, etc.),  as well to the opportunities in the environment (new European structural funds) and are logically linked to present day renewed and enlarged vision and mission. This helped ENCATC to become strong and self-sustainable network and to resist to crises, creating funds to help member who cannot afford to come to annual meetings or seminars. Thus, Thomassen fund, officially launched in May 1999, is open to individuals and organizations based in countries with significant structural financial challenges. To conclude, ENCATC network had opted for strategy of program diversification as the main strategy of its development.

2. Diversification of resources (financial, technological…), is one of the most important strategies to ensure financial stability and long term sustainability of independent organization. Being attached to only one source of financial income (such as city or regional government for example) might be extremely risky for one organization from the standpoint of sustainability. Political changes may bring different priorities and NGO can find out quickly that it stayed without usual resources. NGO Stanica had developed diversified budget to be able to survive[11] – besides their own income, they fundraised on all the levels: from diverse European funds and foundations ( EU Youth program, Development of Civil Society Foundation, EU Phare program), European Cultural Foundation, Council of Europe ( European Youth Foundation),  but also Slovakian funds (Ministry of Culture of Slovak Republic, Ministry of Education of Slovak Republic, Children of Slovakia Foundation, Grant Program of Orange Slovakia, SOCIA Foundation for Support of Social Changes; Foundation-Center for Contemporary Arts), and numerous foreign funds (Norwegian embassy,  USA TRUST program funded by Trust for Civil Society in Eastern and Central Europe; Small Grants program of World Bank, Polish Institute in Bratislava, Slovak Institute in Prague) and, at the end, also funds from local community: Zilina Community Fund.
Diversification of technological and informational resources might be very important for the NGO dealing with new, innovative art forms, such as digital labs, Dance centers, etc.

3. Commercialization of programs and the spread of services
In last twenty years, the huge pressure is put on NGO sector that they should develop also kind of commercial, service activities, to be able to sustain themselves. Because of that, in some countries there are small differences in-between NGOs and cultural agencies, especially in the domain of research, consultancy etc. Expert NGO organizations, such as Cultural Observatories, are growing throughout, and majority of their services are publicly funded – but, in countries such as Great Britain, where there are many of them in the same field, they have to find their more competitive strategy for development. Usually, it is a strategy of spreading of commercial (paying)[12]services.

EUCLID [13], British based organization, provides a range of European & international information, research & consultancy services using different media. EUCLID also organizes seminars and conferences in the UK and in Europe on European and international topics, but also participates as “trainer” on other organizations seminars and conferences.  EUCLID has undertaken numerous research projects for the European Commission, the Council of Europe, European networks, the British Council and UK arts funding bodies and local authorities. They have enlarged their information services including the Culture.Info, online information resource and the SUCCINCT e-newsletter – international cultural information digest. This strategy of commercialization of services (so, creation of services which could be sold), was of great importance to help them in transitioning from previous publicly commissioned job of being Cultural Contact Point in Great Britain. Now, this job is given to another organization: Visiting Arts, which shows in what extent the sector in Great Britain has to be competitive and self-developing all the time.

4. Program-focused orientation/shrinking of the organization (declining numbers of staff and volunteers). This strategy should be applied in a time of economic crisis. NGO should concentrate on most distinguished and important activity, using resources in a most efficient and effective ways. Different research had shown that majority of NGOs develop spontaneously, that funding logic and member individual interest might lead organization from primordial mission to incoherent activities, which would contribute to dissolution of the image. So, it would be important to assess the outcomes of activities, and to evaluate to what extent the present situation can endangered organization respect and credibility in environment.

Usually, this strategy is not implemented ON TIME, willingly, but is happening randomly, sometimes cutting the best parts or projects of the organization.

One famous example is example of Grotowski center in Pontedera growing and downsizing. In 1986, Grotowski was invited by Roberto Bacci (Centro per la Sperimentazione e la Ricerca Teatrale) to Pontedera, Italy, where he had an opportunity to conduct long-term research on performance with three assistants from Objective Drama research (Richards, Jimenez and Slowiak). After several years, funding cuts demanded downscaling to a single research group, led by Richards. Due to that, to the important role Richards had since, in 1995, Grotowski changed the name of the Pontedera center to the Workcenter of Jerzy Grotowski and Thomas Richards. This downsizing has not diminished the quality of the work within Center, but it influenced a lot its substance (Grotowski devoted his further work on researching of Art as Vehicle)[14].

b)  Quality achievement strategies

This group of strategies can be applied only after several strategic cycles successfully implemented, when the organization wants to make a great step beyond existing reality and enter the field as the leading organization.

5. Education and knowledge transfer. Most of the organizations when they achieve high level of professionalism, social respect in local and international environment, have to find a new developmental challenge. It is usually in the domain of the education and training – they start offering internships to universities and training program in the field, creating conventions and contracts on long-term cooperation. After that they start considering developing their own training formats, especially if it is the domain where those kind of educational institutions are lacking (like in music therapy, contemporary dance, or digital arts, etc.). Nordoff Robbins Music therapy center is a charity offering music therapy to children living with illness, disability, trauma or isolation “transforming their lives through the power of music” ( But, now they have developed a MA program, validated by City University, called Music, Health, Society, a professional training for musicians (targeting those artists who want to offer their knowledge and skills to community needs).

6. Securing (exclusive) licensing rights. Some of the organizations – especially among professional associations, which have specialized in capacity building and professional development, can secure special rights to give the professional status (free-lance status) to its members, or to acknowledge (give) status to new organizations in the domain. In many countries there are competitions for obtaining license to provide trainings in art education (life-long learning) to art school teachers, etc. Obtaining this right, can be a guarantee for further development of NGO, giving it social respect and stability.

c)  Linkage strategies (intrasectoral and intersectorial organizational cooperation). Linkage strategies are the most used strategies in cultural sector. Each of them can be realised locally, nationally, regionally or internationally. But, there are organizations who are applying them on all the levels, such as Borderline foundation in Seyni, which has programs and activities which are very important in  the local area, region, but especially across the borders. In the same time they develop important activities nationally (Czeslaw Milosz house) as well as internationally, acting as a role-model for many activist cultural organizations working on intercultural dialogue and a culture of memory.

7. Orientation towards partnership/co-productions. Besides market pressure to find solution how to realize project ideas in creative industries (film and TV production), the raise of partnership can also be seen in non-profit sector due to the conditions of many “donors”, such as EU program Culture 2007 or ECF and Soros Foundation program: Balkan Incentive fund for Culture. Consequently, NGOs and other cultural organizations are stimulated to create partnerships and co-productions.

7a) program merging strategies – Good example of that, rarely applied strategy is a case of two women film festivals: Feminale and Femme totale, which since 80` had been organized in two German cities: Köln and Dortmund. Then both organization decided to create one significant film festival: the International Women`s Film Festival Dortmund/Cologne – alternating each year between Dortmund and Cologne. Based in one of the largest European metropolitan areas it is open not only to film representation, but also it acts as a platform for education, training, networking. This example is showing that merging should be conceived if the similarity of missions exists, even if NGOs are in two different cities. 
7b) public-civil partnership is usually organized around use of postindustrial buildings – such is a case of Cable factory in Helsinki, or Beirut Art Center. In this case, the only possible strategy of development for NGO was to find way to engage public partnership, to get use of the postindustrial building under fair price or even after substantial public investment in its restoration.

Public civil partnership also exists in case of research. New evidence-based cultural policy is demanding more and more data – and that was the important factor-stimulus for Observatoire de politique culturelle de Grenoble[15] develop and to develop besides research, also an MA program for cultural professionals with Institut d`Etudes politiques de Grenoble.

8. Networking. Usually when we say networking, we think about European networks, but, as in any other linkage strategy, networking as a strategy for development can be planned on both national and international levels. MAMA[16].has initiated network Clubture, Croatia, as its own developmental tool, but in the same time a tool for use in the whole sector. It is one of the most important networks created in 2002 on national level in last decade gathering independent cultural organizations. It functions as collaborative platform within which member organizations are exchanging programs or are developing collaborative projects. The network became an important actor in cultural production in Croatia (urban culture, youth culture, interdisciplinary art and cultural projects, activist and socially engaged programs). By interconnecting NGOs active in their local communities, network stimulates a development of capacity building programs and know-how accumulation[17].

Through specific collaborative formats in Clubture-HR program more than 100 different projects within which about 1000 events were realized in more than 50 cities. This shows in what extent networking as strategy can be helpful in raising the quantity of the programming, but in the same time also the quality, respect and influence of the initial organization behind it, as well as of all of its members. There is no member today who would not put this membership as the primary element of its own description.

9. Decentralization of activities. Majority of NGOs are created in big cities, while majority of international NGOs have their seat in cities like Brussels, Amsterdam, Geneva or Strasbourg. It is clear that in both cases one of the important strategy for development might be Decentralization of activities, which usually is done on a simple level when it comes to international organization, by rotating the place of meetings (or, sometimes, even the place of the network secretariat). But, in this case it is not really strategy - it is just an attempt to create decentralized method of operation. To create a real strategic move would demand more substantial thinking of how to involve members and communities on the wider territory.

9a) One of the substrategies obviously is a strategy of internationalization – (making antennas in another countries, territories). In this sense a network Banlieues d`Europe had created its own antenna Banlieue de l`Est – creating conditions for more long-lasting impact not only in Romania, where antenna is situated, but in a wider Balkan region.

9b) decentralization on national level/regional/local level, is a very difficult task, as it should be applied exactly in the countries and in the territories deprived of cultural offer. It can be done by “moving” the whole organization, or create several small “antennas” on a wider territory, in order to host programs developed in the central office of NGO.
One of the best example of this kind of structure is a NGO “Culture Commune” [18], intermunicipal association for development of art and culture which has 34 municipalities who support them. They organize manifestations, performances, concerts, workshops and educational activities in a wider ex-mining region in North of France. That was the only way to create independent structure to promote art and culture, joining cultural and artistic creative forces from the wide territory but also, offering cultural services not in one place – as all of the municipalities needed support for both its artists and audiences.

10. Inter-sectorial linkage. In many strategies the intersectorial linkages are already embedded, as it was visible in all Quality achievement strategies (education and culture crossings). Another obvious domain is Health (already given example of Music therapy), and the third most used field is a field of Cultural tourism. Many NGOs are active directly and indirectly in this domain, like AEOLIS-Cultural Development Society of Lesvos Island( which develops cultural activities and initiativesin the area of cultural tourism, aiming to activate community in developing and promoting the Greek culture and helping in preservation of the island natural environment. AEOLIS organizes cultural activities: organizes theatre and cinema shows, music events, and develops actions in the field of cultural tourism: cultural visits and excursions, workshops and conferences (among others an international summer program on Greek Language and Culture). Participating in the EU funded project“Sing, Smooth and Smile” on therapeutic Impact of Traditional Music, this NGO is showing how CLUSTER of strategies is needed in development (also, it is leading organization of the Cultural Tourism Network in Lesvos Island).
There are also other fields of engagement where cultural activities today are intersecting more and more, like employment, urban regeneration, social care (social inclusion), etc.

11. Piggybacking strategy -  short term, negative strategy, using immediate opportunities (like to catch up with one big institution which cannot deliver that many services it was offered, etc.) – but on the long term it does not provide real opportunities for development. For example, Roma ex-Skopje Theater “Pralipe”, at the beginning of war and dissolution of Yugoslavia, emigrated in Germany, where it was hosted by Ciulli Theater an der Ruhr in Mulheim[19]. In January 1991 Lorca’s “Blood Wedding” was the first Mülheim production of the Roma Pralipe Theatre. In those several years with the financial aid of the Germany the group realized five productions (besides Blood Wedding, the Big Water by Macedonian author Zivko Cingo and Shakespeare’s Romeo and Julia), and performed in more than 100 cities of Germany and Europe[20].  But, when money from the German Government had stopped, the theatre troupe was not ready to find new way of survival. In this period when they were operating as having “roof” and basic conditions in Mullheim, they have not developed their own capacities enabling them to work independently – and when time came to finally decide should they continue independently, or go back to Skopje (after war), the troup just could decide to dissolve itself, and its member to pursue independently their carreers.

d)  Public engagement strategies

12. Positioning in the public domain and development of recognizability– public visibility. One example is coming from Germany, showing how an idea, developed as artistic (sedentary) idea, through positioning in public spaces in many cities of Europe is becoming more and more important.  The OMNIBUS FOR DIRECT DEMOCRACY [21] in Germany is a civil society initiative dedicated to the promotion of democracy. The inspiration for their work came from Joseph Beuys project:  “Organization for Direct Democracy through Referendum” which he created in 1971 in Düsseldorf. In 1972 he installed the office at “Documenta 5” in Kassel and discussed his “expanded concept of art” and “direct democracy” with visitors for 100 days. One and a half year after Beuys death, the first OMNIBUS FOR DIRECT DEMOCRACY IN GERMANY begins at “Documenta 8” (1987). It stays on the road for seven years (737 stops). And it continues to go further west and South – always using bus as a promotional and communicational tool – but positioned in the most public areas of the visited cities, to provoke largest communication possible.

13. Lobbying and support-gathering strategies.If the NGO is in the crisis due to political situation (the governing parties do not acknowledge the work of NGO due to ideological reasons), losing the premises they have used or bad economic circumstances which results in cutting funds for civil sector, it might be important to develop as the first step, or the first strategy in the cluster the Lobbying and support gathering strategy.
One of the examples is actual at the end of 2010 – the case of Gallery Context[22]. from Belgrade, which was prevented to develop its activity in the premises they used to work, as the old cultural institution subletting its space to them had been closed and a new public municipal cultural center created[23]. New Center wanted Gallery context only to use the space sporadically, not to have its own offices there. The NGO Gallery Context had entered in a large activity of lobbying and support gathering, for the new space within city of Belgrade. Many other NGOs, artists and intellectuals are joining them in this battle which is still on-going.

14. Public commitment strategies and changes in the public spacecase of Warszawska street in Zagreb[24].
NGO Green Action, Right to the City, Mama, and many others, had joined together in the action to prevent gentrification. They are already fifth time in different judiciary pursuit as activists from civil sector who organized different type of protests and performances to raise public awareness and prevent construction to start in the center of the city.
Similar actions in Poland are led by Association Kultura Miejska[25], created in 2006 in Gdansk as a self-organized collective with intention to explore alternative strategies for cultural and city policies, by using socially and politically engaged art practice, research and public debates.

Other activist organizations are Index 73[26]., an informal Polish initiative on protecting the freedom of artistic expression and – a grass-roots movement for social change aiming to empower Gdansk’s citizens for using their “rights to the city” (Henri Lefebvre).

e)  Strategies for the achievement of sustainability

15. Strategy of minimal self-sustainability. In many cultural organizations, especially in hobby or interest organizations, the leaders just want to achieve minimal self-sustainability. They would reject any developmental strategy, as they do not want any program or organizational change. Choral association in a small city or Association of supporters to certain cultural institution, or to a city, usually think that their mission has been defined at the creation of the organization, and that it should not change. Although this approach usually is not considered to be “strategic”, I think that it reflects long-term option of change rejection, and thus represents one type of strategic approach. The risky one, as it keeps organization in an old format, while context and everything around is changing.

16. Migration strategy. When the local, or national contexte becomes narrow for the activities of NGO, or, as it used to be in the past, when due to political situation is not possible to continue, one solution is to (e)migrate. The most known case is a case of Jerzy Grotowsky, who in Opole in 1958 (as Director of the Theatre of 13 Rows) started to create a company of actors and artistic collaborators close to his artistique vision. In 1965 Grotowski moved his company to Wrocław -  that was the beginning of a "Teatr Laboratorium" with "The Constant Prince", debuting only in 1967 (considered today as one of the greatest theatrical works of the 20th century). The "Apocalypsis Cum Figuris"  was the last professional production from Grotowski (1969). In his paratheatrical phase in Poland he did a lot of research. “Always a master strategist, Grotowski made use of his international ties and the relative freedom of travel allowed him to pursue this program of cultural research in order to flee Poland following the imposition of martial law”. Receiving political asylum in the United States Grotowsky had not had good conditions for work, so, he considered proposal from Italy and went in Pontedera. (already explained in strategy number 4)

NGO Academica from Uzice, had developed a lot of important projects in Uzice and southwest Serbia, developing itself in a known expert organisation in the field of cultural policy and management. Considering that on the local level they do not have any more opportunities to develop, and due to difficult  socio-political situation in Uzice, Academica had moved to Belgrade in order to manage better their international and regional projects…

Usually, few of those strategies have to be used in synergy, to achieve new visions and goals of organisational development. There is no single case that ONE single strategy can be sufficient (even if declared, it is usually relying on few supporting additional strategies).

Additional strategies, used in private and public sector

However, it is important to know about existance of other strategies and approaches, as independent organization might change profile and, creating »daughter company« [27] as private organisation, or changing their own status – willingly or sometimes unwillingly, might use other forms of strategies more appropriate in business world or in the world of public administration. So, in the following pages, we will analyze »exceptional« strategies, that, although rarely used in independent sector, might be suitable for developmental ideas with partner companies in creative industries or partner public institutions.

1. Increasing the volume of production and services– (scaling-up an organization[28]) usually end with increased number of personnel. This strategy rarely can be developed in independent non-profit sector as it demands capital investments – private or public (it might happen in private sector with bank loans, when publishing company takes a bank loan to develop network of bookshops, or in public sector when city or state decides that present cultural institution (i.e. the local cultural center), should also take a role of city theater etc. (or, as Halles de Scharbeek in Brussels, as extremely succesful independent cultural center with few staff had been offered public status – of a European Cultural Center of Francophone Community in Brussels).

2. Audience development and market expansion– as usually the independent organization lack adequate premises (extra spaces for educational or other type of activities aiming different target groups to bring as audiences), and does not have such a quantity of programs to be launched in one moment on the market with strong advertising campaigns, this strategy in NGO sector is mostly linked with spread of services among relevant target groups, and in this sense, the audience objectively is enlarged.

One of the most used tactics within this strategy is touring (which can be both commercial and non-commercial, supported by public or charity funds). One of the oldest examples for private cultural organizations dates from 1931 – when Duke Ellington left his long-term residency in Harlem’s Cotton Club to begin many years of touring with his orchestra[29].“It was an important move in a strategy that would reposition Ellington as a serious composer… and his popularity breached all social divisions, pushing hard against the boundaries of racial segregation”.

3. Strategy of harmonization with professional standards of operation– demands also high level of investment in education of staff, plus in technological equipment, which also might be achieved in cultural industries such as independent media companies, or private non-profit institutions (private museums), but rarely in non-profit civil sector.

4. Support for quality development– achievement of excellence, is a strategy which might be applied only after several strategic cycles – when organization is already stable, having secured funds for several years in advance, high respect in professional (European) community, and high respect within local/national public opinion. As only few public cultural policies in Europe are having as systemic instrument the long term financing of independent organizations – there are not yet conditions for applying this strategy

5. Strategy of privatization– is the most unlikely strategy within civil society organizations, as they have been created with a community engagement perspective, with a strong ethics linked to social commitment and activist approach. However, in a certain political situation NGO are forced to become private or it is only solution for their activism (like in Egypt, organization Al Mawred Al-Thaqafy[30], has been created locally as small enterprise, music agency, while in reality it is operating as a real NGO, and in Brussels they have registered nongovernmental organization.

After political changes, due to the pressure of Council of Europe and EU Commission, wanting quickly to contribute to liberalization of media sphere, in Serbia and other Balkan countries a new law regarding media had been introduced, demanding quick privatization of media. The law wanting to prevent misuse and manipulation by public authorities of local and regional media imposed quick privatization to all media, except public service. But, in the same time, two typical media risen from civil society, B92 (from youth movement) and Radio Index (from student movement), having very important role in battles for democracy in Serbia during 90s, had to become just plane commercial stations, and in order to survive had to insure the advertisers about high ratings of their programs. That limited parts of the socially engaged and responsible projects and programs broadcasted, and opened the door to programs such as Big brother, etc. This still is raising controversial debates within public opinion, although B 92 tries to keep the ethos and image more with social actions (building house for the children of the street, fighting against homophobia, against prejudices for people with HIV, building houses for victims of family violence, etc.)[31]

6. Strategy of institutionalization (through political decision or through lobbying to become PUBLIC or SEMI-PUBLIC institution), have been used in Europe in different political moments. While in Eastern Europe de-etatization was one of the most important cultural processes, when a lot of STATE associations have been RETURNED to civil sector, Jack Lang did the opposite when in 1981 became Minister of Culture – he offered to many independent theater troupes registered as association of citizens to become National drama centers (Centre dramatiques nationales), like Theatre de Campagnol who in 1982, became  Centre dramatique national de south suburban area based in  Châtenay-Malabry (till 2002).[32]

Another two typical cases of strategy of passage from civil to public sector represent the case of National Center for Dance in Romania[33] (lobbying for recognition of one art field through creation of public institution), or Halles de Schaerbeek in Brussels[34]which is probably one of the most famous example of how a citizen, civil society project might become a flagship project of national cultural policy (in this case of French community of Brussels and later Belgium).

7. Merging strategy (merging of organizations). Majority of organizations in civil sector would not consider giving up their independence merging with another one. But, in private sector, and sometimes in public, where Boards want to see achievements (raise of audiences, wider outreach, etc.) this strategy is used in a way to suit both partners – it is more like steady long-term partnership than merging like in business world. The most famous example[35]comes from New York, where in January 2000, the MOMA (The Museum of Modern Art) and P.S.1 Contemporary Art Center signed a Memorandum of Understanding formalizing their affiliation - merging. The Museum became the sole corporate member of P.S.1 while P.S.1 maintains its artistic independence. This more than partnership developed outreach for both institutions, and created a wide number of collaborative opportunities in collecting, exhibiting and development of educational programs[36].

8. Sunsetting-strategy of dissolution, with the preservation of institutional achievements and collective memory.
In NGO sphere there are never enough time or investments that sunsetting might become a planed and implemented strategy. It is difficult to obtain funds for implementing closure of organization in a most useful way, transmitting accumulated knowledge and capacities. However, few cultural programs and offices, especially in the field of cultural diplomacy had lately been closed, implementing in one or other way exit strategy. Swiss cultural program had closed its offices in Macedonia, Serbia, Roumania, Ukraine, Albania, creating and funding large long term partnership projects in each country, wanting to transfer its legacies on local actors through precisely conceptualized and officially approved Exit strategy (called Capitalization on expiriences).

Program Policies for Culture, developed by ECF and ECUMEST Association (Bucarest), also officially was closed in February 2009, but leaving its website www.policiesforculture.orgactive so that results of this program could still be accessible and used. Program carefully empowered its participants, transfering knowledge and skills, so that today in the region there are several local initiatives continuing advocacy actions in the field of cultural policy[37]in the place of Policies for culture.


Strategic Approach in NGO sector has to be stimulated through different methods of capacity building and professional development. In public sphere and in specific areas of culture such as librarianship and museology, there exist different but very precise systems for development of professional career. In the same time, for assessing and evaluating a work of cultural institutions there are also defined standards in many areas. But, when it comes to independent sector – the professional development and establishment of standards is left to each individual organization, and in many cases, as those organizations are weak, hardly achieving sustainability, there is no time and energy to really develop framework for life-long learning, quality assurance and development.

However, the strength of civil sector is in its motivation and energy of its members. That is the reason why self-education is so widely used tool[38].In this sense this text was written to help efforts of independent organizations in culture aiming their own capacity building. The explained strategies have to be understood as good or bad practices and applied only in accordance with new, changed vision and mission of independent cultural organizations. But, to achieve real sustainability, organizations had to reinforce capacity of its members, as well of its leaders. Professional development has to be duty and responsibility of all the members, and peer- consultation and transfer of knowledge part of daily work, and of ethics of independent sector. No competivity but collaboration, no marketing but audience development and community work, no export, but real exchange and transfer of capacities and skills. Strategic approach in development of independent cultural organizations should go hand in hand with ethical reasoning and community development.


Dragicevic Sesic M. and Dragojevic S. Art management in turbulent times: adaptable quality management, Boekmanstichtung and ECF, Amsterdam, 2005.

Nikodinovski-Bish, Ljubisha.THE THEATRE AT THE CROSSROADS, in: 4th edition "THE WORLD OF THEATRE" (1992-1994), INTERNATIONAL THEATRE INSTITUTE (ITI) UNESCO,, accessed 12 December 2010.

van Erven, Eugen. Radical people's theatre,  Indiana University Press, 1988.

Vujanovic, Ana, ed. Goat tracks of self-education

Wolford Lisa and Richard Schechner eds, The Grotowski Sourcebook by London: Routledge, 1997.

The data in this paper are produced through research: Art, Culture and Media in the Processes of European Integrations, n. 149004, supported by Ministry for Science and Technology, Republic of Serbia.

  1. 1., accessed 23 December 2011.
  2. 2. Nordoff Robbins has been chosen by the Classic FM Foundation as their beneficiary charity for 2011. During the year, they will be working with us and fundraising to provide over 4000 music therapy sessions.
  3. 3. It is a non-profit participatory network of independent cultural organizations from Croatia, acting as collaborative platform for exchanging programs and direct cooperation on specific projects.
  4. 4. TEH is a European Network of Independent Cultural Centers that connects fifty multidisciplinary and socially engaged member centers, located in industrial heritage buildings.
  5. 5. Informal European Theater Meeting.
  6. 6. In media theory those media programming strategies are: Theming, stacking, bridging, tentpoling, hammocking, crossprogramming, stripping, counterprogramming etc. (“Scheduling strategies”), but can be applied for cultural centers, museums etc.
  7. 7. Dragićević Šešić M. i Dragojević S. „Art management in turbulent times: adaptable quality management”, Boekmanstichtung and ECF, Amsterdam, 2005.
  8. 8. Created in 1992 in Warsaw with an aim to facilitate knowledge exchange between its members, in the domain of cultural management and teaching methods. 
  9. 9. It is visible in this examples: 2008: Intercultural dialogue and project management
    2007: On Entrepreneurship and Education in Cultural Life, Göteborg, Sweden
    2006: Competence in Diversity or Diversity in Competence, 18-21 May, Bratislava, Slovakia
    2005: Cultural Management and the question of values in a shifting landscape, Potsdam, Germany
    2004: Managing cultural dynamics within the renewed Europe, Cracow, Poland
    2003: Cultural management education and training: current and future challenges, Turin, Italy
    2000: Open Space Conference on Innovative Learning Strategies for Cultural Management Training, Turku, Finland
    1999: Cultures of Europe - Views, Angles, Perspectives. Ten years after the fall of the Berlin Wall, what are the cultural dynamics? Paris, France
    1998: New Maps for New Territories: Artistic production in change - what are the implications for arts management education and training? Uppsala, Sweden
  10. 10., accessed 17 December 2010.
  11. 11., accessed 28 December 2010
  12. 12. It goes against ethos of civils society, usually offering its knowledge, skills, for free, for the benefit of the community.
  13. 13., accessed 23 December 2010
  14. 14. The Grotowski Sourcebook ed. by Lisa Wolford and Richard Schechner, London: Routledge, 1997
  15. 15. www.observatoire-culture.netde
  16. 16. Multimedia Institute (net. cultural club mama), Zagreb. accessed 17. December 2010
  17. 17. Raising awareness and participating actively in debates about cultural policies the network gives considerable contribution to cultural democracy and for development of instruments of cultural policy on all the levels in Croatia. So, it can be said that this network is using now public engagement strategies and partnerships as its main developmental strategies
  18. 18., accessed 11 December 2010.
  19. 19. Theater an der Ruhr, a limited company, is an alternative organizational model to conventional municipal theatre in Germany. The Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung once called it “the most unusual non-municipal theatre in the Republic: half strolling Land players, half permanent independent group”.
  20. 20. Ljubisha Nikodinovski-Bish. THE THEATRE AT THE CROSSROADS, in: 4th edition "THE WORLD OF THEATRE" (1992-1994), INTERNATIONAL THEATRE INSTITUTE (ITI) UNESCO,, accessed 12 December 2010.
  21. 21.
  22. 22., accessed 25 December 2010
  23. 23., accessed 25 December 2010.
  24. 24. We do not give Warszaw street (Ne damo Varsavsku!) accessed 30 December 2010
  25. 25., accessed 30 December 2010.
  26. 26., accessed 30 December 2010
  27. 27. YUSTAT center created in 1991, founded YUSTAT PRO as agency which will be a small private commercial enterprise, making architectural projects, advertising and other type of services in cultural sector, and part of the profit investing in NGO, whose main task was to work on advancing professional conditions and standards in theater field.
    Today, Yustat center, applying strategies number 1 and 3, is dealing in various sectors of arts and culture, such as cultural and environmental heritage, cultural communications, artistic education and networking. Through specific projects YUSTAT is aiming to explore new, more efficient organizational and production models, as well as introduction of European technical standard in cultural practices., accessed 10 December 2010.
  28. 28. In literature there are examples of cooperatives (collectives) such as ”zadruga”, which applied this strategy – but not in cultural sector, like Jamii Bora, Kenya`s largest microfinance institution which started with 50 members in order to help poor through low-cost loans to develop small business. (Financial Times, December 9, 2010, p.14)
  29. 29. Mike Hobart - Seriously popular, Financial times, 20-21 November 2010, p.13
  30. 30., accessed 15 December 2010.
  31. 31., accessed 15 December 2010.
  32. 32. However, their example is showing the “ethical” difficulty in applying this strategy of re-etatisation. They continued to think about themselves as “popular” theatre group, in spite of having large national and regional subsidy, and plus, although “operating in the Parisian metropolitan area has increased their chances to get exposure and money”, in: Eugen van Erven, Radical people's theatre,  Indiana University Press, 1988. p. 216
  33. 33. The National Center of Dance - Bucharest (CNDB) was founded in July 2004 due to a campaign designed to create a necessary space in a cultural context for a contemporary dance. The campaign was sustained by artists and NGOs operating in the field of contemporary dance. accessed 12 Dec.2010.
    Cosmin Manolescu, a choreographer and arts manager since 1997, has been involved in the development of contemporary dance in Romania and as the executive director of “Project DCM” Foundation; an independent dance organization played an important role in the creation of the National Dance Center in Bucharest. (, accessed 12 December 2010)
  34. 34. In 1972 Jo Dekmine creates a project of socio-cultural animation of Halles, abandoned market in center of Brussels. From January 1974, the first stable team enters the premises under leadership of Philippe Grombeer, creating multiple projects and programs such as workshops, concerts, festivities but also representations of contemporary European spectacles, etc.
    Citizens association has been created in 1975, and already in 1980 this association (NGO), was recognized as « Foyer culturel » by Ministry of Culture.
    In 1991 les Halles receives the Status of European cultural center of French Community (Centre culturel européen de la Communauté française). Since 1998 first long-term programmation contract (Contrat-programme quinquennal) has been signed, and it continues like this till today. Mission is still connected with interdisciplinarity, engagement (socio-political) and international (not only European) dimension.
  35. 35. The other known example is London University of Arts, which had connected six distinctive Colleges: Camberwell College of Arts, Central Saint Martins College of Art and Design, Chelsea College of Art and Design, London College of Communication, London College of Fashion, Wimbledon College of Art.
  36. 36., accessed 15 December 2010.
  37. 37. In Novi Sad:, accessed 10 December 2010.; in Zagreb
  38. 38. In Belgrade the Walking Theory NGO had organized important conference: Goat tracks of self-education, during 41 edition of BITEF theatre festival. Later, the results of the conference had been represented in a form of a journal during Documenta 12 in Kassel., accessed 20 December 2010.
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